第四学期口语考试参考话题 Topic 1 My Opinion on the Spring Festival Gala 1. 2. 3. 许多人喜欢在除夕夜看春节晚会 但有些人提出取消春节晚会 我的看法
The Spring Festival is a traditional festival for all Chinese people; on that evening there is a very traditional ceremony----Spring Festival Gala, which is the favorite for many people. It brings so much happiness to Chinese all around the world in the past twenty years. When asked about their opinion on Spring Festival Gala, people always reason differently. Some people deem that it should be cancelled, while there are also other people who argue that it should be continued. Some people take it for granted that the Gala should not exist because it is too boring on the evening of the Lunar New Year. Besides, the form of the Evening seems the same every year. In comparison, there are, however, a large number of people who hold a different view concerning this issue, they maintain that the Gala must be continued. They argue that it is one of the most important celebration customs. And they think the Gala is worth expecting. As far as I am concerned, I am intending to stand on the side of the latter group of people. Admittedly, the former point of view seems reasonable, but the latter is more persuasive. Taking the above-mentioned factors into consideration, I can safely conclude that the Gala just needs a reform in the future but to be cancelled. 范文 2：However, an increasing number of people have voiced different opinions towards it, as more diverse life styles have emerged nowadays. Some prefer to go to a fancy restaurant to enjoy a delicate meal; some intend to go on a vacation to an incredibly exotic destination for a novel and thorough relaxation; others may have even more post-modern notions, like going bungi, hiking, or cycling for entirely new different experiences, forgetting all about the Spring Festival. To me, the Get-Together is supposed to be here to stay. It may not remain a must for all people, but it can bring us a strong sense of festivity and serve as an alternative among the variety of holiday activities. Besides, with such a gathering, family members will have a perfect opportunity to enjoy more fun and happiness, for nowadays most people are so engaged in their daily businesses that they can rarely find any extra time to stay with their family, which, if not properly adjusted, might add further to the already worsening situation of the values of Chinese families. 范文 2： The way that the Chinese celebrate the Lunar New Year poses a national issue concerning the necessity of holding the CCTV Spring Festival Gala. Its established status is being challenged by a growing number of people, especially by
younger generations. It is increasingly difficult to cater for all tastes. Some individuals deem that it should be canceled or replaced by other programs. These young people focus their attention on other forms of celebration instead of immersing themselves in TV programs. Despite that, the majority of mid-aged people and senior citizens uphold the importance of the traditional performance. The most striking feature of this Gala is its traditionally close link with ordinary people's lives. Most of people view this Gala as an annual staple on the traditional Chinese Spring Festival Eve. They all have a restless night and glue their eyes on the television screen. I am not supportive of the view that the grand Gala should be abandoned. Undoubtedly, it plays a vital role in the celebration of Chinese New Year. To increase its appeal and meet young adults' need, the upcoming performance should invite some big names including super stars from Hong Kong and Taiwan. We are all eagerly anticipating this unforgettable evening show. Topic 2 1 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic On Water Shortage. You should write at least 150 words according to the outline given below in Chinese: 1． 水资源短缺已成为严重问题 2． 造成水资源短缺的原因 3． 提出解决方案 On Water Shortage No one can have failed to notice the fact that water shortage is a severe problem with which the whole world is confronted. Actually, it has become so widespread that it has deeply affected people’s daily life and hindered the development of the global economy. A number of factors can account for the problem, but the following might be the critical ones. First, with the development of agriculture and industry, an increasing amount of water is needed. Secondly, the ever-increasing population is another leading cause of water shortage. Besides, the global tendency of warming-up also contributes to the problem. What’s worse, pollution and waste of fresh water aggravate/worsen the situation. In view of the seriousness of the problem, effective measures must be taken before things get worse. First, it is essential that laws and regulations be worked out and enforced to protect water resources. Secondly, people should enhance their awareness of saving water. With these measures taken, it is reasonable for us to expect a brighter future. Topic 3 In Honor of Teachers on the Occasion of Teacher’s Day 1. 2. 向老师致以节日祝贺 从一件难忘的事回忆老师的教诲和无私的奉献
3. 我如何回报老师的关爱 范文 1 This is Teachers' Day and a time for us to be grateful to all teachers. This profession as a teacher deserves special recognition and respect. There is no more appropriate time than this to honour you and others in your chosen field. You deserve my eternal gratefulness. May you a happy Teachers' Day. The whole secret of the teacher's force lies in the conviction that men are convertible. Teachers, who educate children, deserve more honor than the children’s parents---who merely gave them birth; for the parents provide them a more enjoyable life, while the former ensure a good life for the children. What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the soul. My heartfelt thank goes to you, my dear teacher. On the voyage of life, you have kindled the light of hope for me. What you have done enriches my mind and broadens my view. On this day I honour you sincerely.No one deserves sincere thank-you than you. One day is hardly enough to show our gratitude. 范文 2 The Once per year ’s Teacher's Day will come soon. At first, I will extend my heartfelt greeting to my teacher. Last week, I suddenly had a terrible stomachache in the school. My teacher was very worried, and sent me to the hospital in a hurry. After careful examination, the doctor verified that I got the acute enteritis. My teacher satyed with me all the night in the hospital, so kind as to look after me. My teacher fed me food and medicine on time. After struggling with the serious illness for days and nights, I left the hospital. Then my teacher helped me to make up the missed English lessons in the successive few days. Here I want to express my gratitude to my teacher, I can’t recover so fast without my teacher. No present can express my grateful feeling to my teacher. Because of my teacher I can participate today’s CET-4.I want to repay my teacher through my hard work and devotion to study. And the best repayment is that I can pass the CET-4 this time Topic 4 Should the University Campus Be Open to Tourists? 1. 2. 3. 名校校园正成为旅游新热点 校园是否应对游客开放，人们看法不同 我认为… Should the University Campus Be Open to tourism? Nowadays, many famous university campuses have become one of the popular tourist attraction. It has been shown on TV and on the radio that every year thousands and thousands of middle school students visit Tsing Hua University and Peking University and other famous universities in China. In the places far away from the capital city, the local students also visit the universities famous in their own province. So far as the present situation is concerned, is it a good or bad thing to open the
university campus for tourists? Different people have different opinions. On one hand, some people argue that it is a good thing for the students to visit the famous university campus in that it can enable the middle school students to get more information about the university and they can have enough time and opportunities to prepare themselves for the chance to get into the university. On the other hand, some people hold a negative view about this phenomenon. In their opinion, the public tourism will have negative effect on the universities because it will not only do harm to its environment but also to its intellectual atmosphere. In my opinion, the tourism to the universities is not a good thing. The campus is mainly a place for study. With the increasing tourism on the campus, it will ruin the spiritual atmosphere in this learning field. Topic 5 A Brief Introduction to a Tourist Attraction Your role: a tour guide Your audience: a group of foreign tourists Your introduction should include: ? some welcoming words; the schedule for the day; a description of the place the tourists will be visiting (e.g. a scenic spot or a historical site, etc.) A Brief Introduction to a Tourist Attraction 范文 1：Good morning, ladies and gentleman, welcome to Beijing. To begin with, I would like to introduce myself: I am the tourist guide from China Travel Service and it’s great honor to stay here with all of you for a whole day. Just as the old saying goes, “It is always a pleasure to greet a friend from afar”，I wish all of you to enjoy yourselves during this trip. The following is the schedule of the day. The first spot we are going to visit is the Great Wall, the grand fortification in ancient China. The next sight to view is the Ming Tombs, which is one of the best-preserved tombs for 13 emperors in Ming Dynasty more than four hundred years ago. In the afternoon, we will go to the Summer Palace, the royal park for ancient Chinese emperors. Currently we are on the way to the Great Wall. Dating back to the seven century B.C., the Great Wall is constructed by respective states to fortify against the invasion of neighboring states. For the reasons of long history and its length, it becomes one of the eight wonders in the world and represents the highest wisdom and crafts. From the top of the Great Wall, we can enjoy a magnificent view of continuous mountains, green trees and blooming wild flowers. It is no doubt that one says, “He who has never been to the Great Wall is not a true man”。 The above is my introduction to the Great Wall. If any of you have questions, please feel free to ask me at any time.
范文 2： Welcome everyone, I am glad that you can come to Pingyao County, where there is the oldest Confucius temple. It was opened to the public Monday after a one-year renovation project. I hope you can enjoy the history and scenary from all the scenic spots. First, I will show you the main building of the temple, its the most interesting spot here. Second, we can take a walk around to see the other areas of this scenic spot. Finally, I will tell the history of the temple. The main building of the temple was built in the year 1163, in Yuan Dynasty,and has a history of more than 840 years. Compared with other famous Confucius temples nationwide, it was built 248 years earlier than that in Beijing, and 317 years earlier than that in Qufu City, Confucius' hometown in east China's Shandong Province. The temple in Qufu was added to the list of the World Cultural Heritages in 1995. The Pingyao Confucius Temple has China's largest statue collection of Confucius and famous ancient Confucian scholars. Covering a total area of 40,000 square meters, the temple has 112 buildings which have been divided into 16 categories. that is the history of the temple. Please visit as you like. If you have any questions, you can ask me. That's all.
Topic 6 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic College Graduates Work as Village Officials. You should write at least 150 words according to the outline given below in Chinese: 1. 你是否认为大学生当村官是个好主意 2. 大学生能给乡村提供些什么 3. 大学生能从村官职位中获得什么 College Graduates Work as Village Officials There is no denying the fact that it is a hotly debated topic today whether college graduates should choose their careers as village officials. Some time ago, it was reported that some college graduates chose to work as village officials. For this, people’s attitudes differ sharply. Some hold the positive view while others are against it. As far as I am concerned, I believe that it is a wise choice. On the one hand, college graduates can contribute a lot to the development of the countryside. First, they can apply their professional knowledge there. Secondly, they can introduce new concepts to the countryside and speed the development of rural culture. As a result, the gap between the city and the countryside can well be bridged. On the other hand, these graduates can benefit a lot from the work as village officials. While too many college graduates are fighting for the handful of positions in big cities, these graduates can find a wider stage of development and realize their value for themselves. Therefore, college graduates working as village officials is a win-win choice and more graduates should be encouraged to work in the countryside.
Topic 7 Student Use of Computers
1. 上图所示为 1990 年、1995 年、2002 年某校大学生使用计算机的情况，请描 述其变化； 2. 请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、 价格或社会发展等方面加以 说明)； 3. 你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题。 Student Use of Computers 范文 1：This chart shows the increase of student use of computers from the year 1990 to 2000. As we can see, in 1990 the average number of hours a student spent on the computer per week is 2. In 1995, however, the number doubles and in 2000, it soars to 20 hours per week. There are many reasons responsible for this change. For one thing, computers can do a lor of things that may be difficult for man to do, which just make man's work easier. So, many people turn to computers for help when they want to have their job done. For another, computers are becoming cheaper day by day. As a result, many universities install them in large numbers and many families can afford to buy one, consequently, they are always available for the students to use. But the prime reason, I think, is that with the development of society, computers are used in almost all walks of life. Those who are specialized in computer operation are badly needed. If a student is good at computer skills, chances will be greater for him to get a job. Many problems also arise in students’ use of computers. One problem is that some students spend too much time sitting in front of their computers, as a result, their health is affected. The other problem is that some students chat or play video games for a long time on computers, wasting a lot of their precious time. So it is suggested that these students make a scientific and positive use of the computers. 范文 2：Since 1990, there has been tremendous growth in the use of computers by students. While in 1990, the average number of hours a student spent on the computer was about one hour per week, this number grew to nearly four hours per week by 1995, and to approximately 20 hours per week by the year 2000. Several factors are respnsible for the significant growth in the use of computers
by students in the 1990's can be attributed to, including widespread usage, lower prices, and technological and social developments. Nowadays, computers are widely used by students for word processing, book keeping, multimedia presentations, and access to the Internet for both research and communications. Additionally, since 1990, due to competition and technological advances, computer hardware and software prices, as well as Internet usage charges have dropped significantly. Finally, technological developments and changes in social habits in the 1990's have played a major role in this tremendous growth in the use of computers. Today's society relies heavily on computers for immediate access to the news and for entertainment, including, listening to music, watching movies and sport events, and playing computer games. While computers are of great assistance to the students, and therefore, are indispensable tools, they also pose some challenges. The biggest challenge that many students face is discipline in the use of this powerful device. That is, students need to have the discipline of not allowing themselves to be lured by the entertaining aspects of this wonderful tool---wich can result in addiction to computer games or viewing the undesirable materials on the Internet. That is to say, students need to use this powerful tool with great wisdom! Topic 8 Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary? 很多人认为有必要举行英语口语考试，理由是… 也有人持不同意见，... 我的看法和打算 Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary? Different people have different opinions about the necessity of a test of spoken English in the College English Test. Some people believe that a test of spoken English is necessary because spoken Eng[ish is an important part of the language. Only when one speaks fluent English can we say that he has really a command of the language. So a test ought to be devised to assess the learner's ability in spoken English. Other people, however, think that a test of written English is enough and test of spoken English is not necessary at all. They hold that one's competence in English can be shown in a test of written English, and a test of spoken English will be difficult to carry out, and will, moreover, add to the burden of the students. In my opinion, a test of spoken English is absolutely necessary, because I believe it is of great importance for every foreign language leaner to speak the language with fluency. For one thing, more and more foreigner are coming to China every year, a large number of people who can speak English fluently are badly needed in all walks of life. For another, the four language skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing in language learning are closely related. A test of spoken English will stimulate the other skills in English learning. 1. 2. 3.
Should Parents Encourage Children to be Independent? 1.家长是否应该帮助孩子走向独立 2.有些家长替孩子包揽一切 3.为了帮孩子自立，家长应该 In our modern and contemporary society,whether parents should offer a helping hand to cultivate their children’s independence has become a hot issue. In other words, we cannot afford to lose sight of this trend that the kids’ independence has become a social focus, which triggers wide concerns across the nation, especially the parents . This tide does exist in our society. In our society,a sizable portion of parents,especially the young parents,spoil their kids from all aspects. Specifically speaking,they help their children pile and clear up their school bags,wash their clothes,even socks. Besides, they also tell their children “if you can succeed in your study, then please leave anything to me”. This prevalent tide sparks our deep thought. From my viewpoint, considering the seriousness of this headache and with an effort to reverse and eliminate this unfavorable trend mentioned above, parents are supposed to teach their kids how to cope with a variety of complex situations. In addition, parents also should take every opportunity to equip themselves with advanced educative knowledge and keep pace with the times and communicate with other parents who enjoy a wealth of educative experiences. In a word, We all hope that these children can have less reliance on their parents and become independent economically and mentally. Topic 10 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic On a Harmonious Dormitory Life. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese: 1. 宿舍生活有时会出现不和谐的情况 2. 一个和谐宿舍生活的必要性 3. 如何创造和谐的宿舍生活 On a Harmonious Dormitory Life Dormitory life is an indispensable part of college life. But sometimes the harmony in the dormitory will be disturbed by one way or another. For example, some members listen to the music late into the night and make those light sleepers restless. Worse still, the smell of some students socks is powerful enough to drive other members out of the room. As is known to all, a harmonious dormitory life is important to college students and benefits all the members. On one hand, we can have a good rest and put our heart into study. On the other hand, we will have a good mood and enjoy being together. In contrast, an unharmonious life will be depressing and counterproductive. There are several ways to create and maintain a harmonious dormitory life. Firstly, you have to evaluate your life style and try to get rid of your bad habits, if there are any. Secondly, when an annoying situation arises, what should you do?Maybe you will just have to
learn to how tolerate each other and coexist. Thirdly, you will have to share with each other and make good friends. In conclusion, we should try our best to build a harmonious dormitory life for the purpose of good study and good life.
的短语造句 造句。 第四册 1-4 课的短语造句。
单元所有的词组。 （说明：造句范围为 1-4 单元所有的词组。 说明： ）
Sentence-making Unit 1
In-class reading beyond the reach of somebody in a place somebody cannot reach by stretching his arm and hand 在某人伸手够不着的地方 e.g. I) Keep chemicals beyond the reach of children. II) The book is beyond my reach. Would you please pass it to me? fall in love with somebody begin to love someone 开始爱上某人 e.g. I) I think I’m falling in love with your brother. II) Why do we fall in love with one person rather than another? flash a smile smile at someone quickly and for a short time 笑容一闪 e.g. I) She flashed a sudden smile at him. II) Meg flashed Cissie a grateful smile. make an attempt to do something try to do something 努力……, 试图…… e.g. I) She made a few half-hearted attempts to join in their conversation. II) The climbers will make another attempt to reach the summit today. end with have something as its last part 以……结束 e.g. I) The festival ended with fireworks. II) His statement ended with the words: “Pray for me.” like clockwork with perfect regularity and precision; smoothly 极有规律性和准确性地， 顺利 地 e.g. I) The operation went like clockwork. II) The Queen’s holiday is arranged to go like clockwork, everything pre-planned to the minute.
loose end(s) an unsettled or unexplained detail 尚待解决或解释的枝节问题 e.g. I) There are some annoying loose ends in the plot. II) It’s a good report, but there are still a few loose ends to be tied up. miscarriage of justice failure to act justly in a court of law, especially one which results in the conviction of an innocent person 审判不公, 误判 e.g. I) This failure contributed to the miscarriage of justice, the judges said. II) I can imagine no greater miscarriage of justice than the execution of an innocent man. take on begin to have a particular quality, appearance, etc. 开始具有或呈现(某种品质、 形貌 等)，以……面貌出现 e.g. I) These insects can take on the color of their surroundings. II) Believing he had only one year to live, his writing took on a feverish intensity. without doubt certainly 无疑地，确实地 e.g. I) He is without doubt someone who has reached the very top in his profession. II) Without doubt this was the most important relationship I developed at college. under arrest kept by the police 被捕，在押 e.g. I) A drug dealer who controlled a gang of 16 people was under arrest last night. II) Murder squad (小队) detectives approached the man and placed him under arrest. back out fail to fulfil (a promise, contract, etc.) 不履行，打退堂鼓，食言
e.g. I) I hope I can depend on you not to back out at the last moment. II) After you’ve signed the contract, it will be impossible to back out. catch on 1) begin to understand or master something 懂得；掌握 e.g. I) He doesn’t take hints easily, but he’ll catch on eventually. II) I am afraid it will be a long time before the newcomer catches on to the new system. 2) become popular 流行 e.g. I) The idea has been around for ages without catching on. II) Will the helicopter ever catch on as a common mode of transport? fill in do someone’s job or work because they are unable to do it 替代某人的工作 e.g. I) But he has done a great job filling in for Andre Reed. II) Sally is off sick. Can you fill in for her for a few days? get through finish or complete something especially when it is difficult 干完，完成 e.g. I) Let’s start; there is a lot of work to get through. II) I think you can get through the first two chapters. start over start doing something again from the beginning, especially because you want to do it better 从头开始 e.g. I) If you make a mistake, just erase it and start over. II) After the fire, we had to start over and build the business again from the beginning. try something out test something in order to see how useful or effective it is or what it is like 试用，试验, 考验 e.g. I) She knew I wanted to try the boat out on the weekend. II) Have the advertisers tried out the new soap on real people yet? with a vengeance (informal) with great force or more effort than before 激烈地，猛烈地 e.g. I) It began to rain again with a vengeance.
II) The music started up again with a vengeance.
a pat on the back ）informal（praise for something that one has done well 鼓励，表扬 e.g. I) Alex deserves a pat on the back for all his hard work. II) Give yourselves a pat on the back. You’ve done so well. attach importance to believe that something is important 认为……重要 e.g. I) I don’t attach any importance to these rumors. II) People attach too much importance to economic forecasts. be on to something (informal) realize the significance; have an idea or information that leads to something important 在做有重要意义（会产生重要结果）的事 e.g. I) You’re on to something, and all this is the result of it. II) When did you realize that you were on to something big? follow up take further action after… (by means of something else) 在……之后再采取进一步 行动 e.g. I) I followed up my letter with a visit. II) He didn’t rest on his achievements; he followed up his success. lift up stimulate, inspire 激励，鼓舞 e.g. I) She really lifted up our spirits with those moving words. II) We want our music to lift people up, to encourage them to go for what they want in life. make a habit of form, develop the habit of … 形成/养成……的习惯 e.g. I) I don’t make a habit of chatting to strange men at parties. II) You can phone me at work as long as you don’t make a habit of it. III) I don’t make a habit of interrupting other people’s conversations. make somebody’s day make somebody feel happy 使某人(的日子过得)快活 e.g. I) Hearing her voice on the phone made my day. II) Seeing Adrian again after such a long time really made my day. pass along hand on 传递, 转交 e.g. I) Please pass the picture along to the student. II) My grandmother passed along her engagement ring to me. shy away from avoid doing something because one is afraid or not confident enough （由于害 怕、心里不踏实或缺乏信心等）回避（做某事） ，躲开…… e.g. I) We frequently shy away from making decisions. II) I’ve always shied away from close friendships. turn … (a)round improve after failure; change for the better 使……向好的方向发展 e.g. I) Within three years she completely turned the company around. II) The $400 million loan will help turn the Russian economy around. walk of life type of work, trade, profession, or social position 社会阶层， 职业，行业 e.g. I) In my job I see people from every walk of life. II) Paul has to work with people of all ages in all walks of life. After-Class Reading PASSAGE I
act on behave according to 根据……行事 e.g. I) Police say they acted on information received. II) Acting on a friend’s advice, he bought $50,000 of shares in a television company. blurt out say something suddenly and rapidly, even when one is expected to keep quiet
e.g. I) Peter blurted the news out before we could stop him. II) The witness blurted out the name of the killer even though the judge told him to keep quiet. get out of hand become impossible to control 无法控制 e.g. I) Deal with the problem before it gets completely out of hand. II) The previously peaceful demonstration seemed to be getting out of hand. if only I wish …但愿……就好了，只要……就好了(后面的从句用虚拟语气) e.g. I) If only I knew what they are going to do. II) If only it hadn’t been so cold, I would have shown more initiative. make … of understand something in a particular way 解释，理解 e.g. I) What do you make of this message? II) We just couldn’t make anything of his odd behavior at the party. leave your present job, class, or activity and start doing another one 更换目前的 工作、班级、活动等而开始另一项 e.g. I) John wanted to move on from the Post to a bigger paper. II) I think we have talked enough about the subject; let’s move on. once too often one time more than is sensible or safe (指冒险犯规等) 次数太多；屡次三番， 引来恶果 e.g. I) He exceeded the speed limit once too often and was fined $20. II) He’s insulted me once too often. He’s going to regret this! move on to this day even now 至今 e.g. I) To this day, I still don’t know why he killed himself. II) I kept my promise, and to this day I have never told anyone her secret. go into enter a particular profession, business, etc. 从事，参加…… e.g. I) Bob wants to go into the army. II) Mr Pok has now gone into the tourism business. take someone/something seriously consider someone or something important 认真对待，认 为……重要 e.g. I) I always take you seriously, don’t I? II) Unfortunately, no one took my messages seriously. Unit 3 Gender Differences as a matter of fact used when adding more details about what one has just said 事实上， 其实 e.g. I) I knew him when we were in college—as a matter of fact we were in the same class. II) I haven’t been here long. As a matter of fact, I just arrived yesterday. call on ask (students) to answer questions 叫（学生）回答问题 e.g. I) The teacher always called on her first.
II) One male teacher says he tends to call on the girls more because they’re more focused. carry over continue to exist in a different situation (在不同情况下) 继续存在，保持下去 e.g. I) Attitudes learned at home carry over onto the playground. II) Will his business genius ever carry over into politics? fall behind become less successful than someone else 落后 e.g. I) In secondary school she started falling behind in her schoolwork. II) Certain other students simply fell behind so much that they could not catch up later on. put … away move something into the place in which it is usually kept 放好，收好 e.g. I) Come on, it’s time to put these toys away. II) I am just too lazy to fold it properly and put it away. up to for the whole of a period until a certain time or date 直到…… e.g. I) We've kept our meetings secret up to now. II) She continued to care for her father up to the time of his death. in a situation in which one is less likely to succeed than others 处于不利地 位的 e.g. I) The children from poor families were at a distinct disadvantage. II) Anyone who can't use a computer is at a disadvantage these days. be accustomed to (doing) something be used to something 习惯于 e.g. I) I’m not accustomed to getting up so early. II) Her eyes quickly became accustomed to the dark. be in a minority form less than half of a group 占少数 e.g. I) Boys are very much in the minority at the dance class. II) In the boardrooms (董事会会议室) of most big corporations, women are in the minority. be typical of show the usual qualities or characteristics of someone or something 具有……典 型特点，代表了…… e.g. I) This hot and spicy dish is very typical of the food in the south of the country. II) This painting is typical of Manet’s portraits of Morisot—a beautiful woman, gazing sadly out at the viewer. burn to death/be burnt to death be killed by fire 烧死 e.g. I) At least 40 people were burnt to death when their bus caught fire. II) A horrific incident took place in the small town, in which 58 boys were burnt to death. for ages (informal) for a very long time e.g. I) Simon! I haven’t seen you for ages! II) Don’t lie awake for ages wondering why you are not sleeping. go too far behave in an extreme way that is not acceptable 走得太远，做得过分 e.g. I) He’s always been quite crude, but this time he’s gone too far. II) Some people thought he had gone too far in his criticism of the police. make a thing of … consider something to be very important 认为……很重要 e.g. I) Don’t make a thing of leaving early. It’s not important. II) My parents always make a thing of my getting good grades. at a disadvantage a bunch of a group of people or things that are fastened, held, or growing together 一群 （束、串）
e.g. I) She went to the park with a bunch of friends. II) The volunteers are a very mixed bunch of people. III) I bought a kilo of apples and a bunch of grapes. go beyond be much better, worse, more serious, etc. than something else 超越，超出 e.g. I) Their relationship had gone beyond friendship. II) This goes beyond all limits of acceptable behavior. light up make or become bright with light or color 照亮，变得明亮 e.g. I) As the screen lit up, he typed in his password. II) The candles on the Christmas tree lit up the room. pull together improve something by organizing it more effectively 把……重新组织好，整 顿 e.g. I) Data exists but it needs pulling together. II) We need an experienced manager to pull the department together. put together make a machine, model, etc. by joining all the different parts 装配，组装 e.g. I) I can’t work out how to put this table together. II) Model aeroplanes come in pieces which you have to put together.
In-class reading be up to … 1) be the duty or responsibility of (somebody) 由……做主，取决于……，是……职责 e.g. I) You can pay weekly or monthly—it's up to you.你可以每星期或者每月付账——这 取决于你。 II) It’s up to the manager to sort out the problems and make sure things are done on time. 找出问题并确保一切都能按时完成是经理的职责。 2) be clever, good, or well enough for a particular purpose or in order to do something 胜任……， 适于…… e.g. I) I’m afraid Tim just isn’t up to the job.恐怕 Tim 只是无法胜任这项工作。 II) His fellow-directors were not up to running the business without him.同行的主管们 没有他无法经营公司。 3) do something secret or something one shouldn’t be doing 密谋…… e.g. I) The children are very quiet; I wonder what they’re up to.孩子们很安静，不知道他们 在谋划什么。 II) I’ll bet that Joe and his mates are up to no good as usual.我打赌 Joe 和他的伙伴们正 在像平时一样策划着什么坏事。 involve … in cause (somebody) to take part in 使某人参与，使某人加入 e.g. I) Don’t involve me in solving your problems.不要让我参与来解决你的问题。 II) It would be difficult not to involve the child’s father in the arrangements.很难不让那 个孩子的父亲参与筹划工作。 sacrifice … for … willingly stop doing something one likes in order to get something more
important 为……牺牲…… e.g. I) It’s not worth sacrificing your health for your career. 不值得为事业牺牲你的健康。 II) Many women sacrifice interesting careers for their family.很多妇女为家庭牺牲了有 意义的事业。 III) The nation is not prepared to sacrifice its independence for an alliance (结盟) with a powerful neighbor.这个国家还没有准备好跟强大的邻国结盟而牺牲自己的独立。 After passage one for the sake of in order to help or bring advantage to 为了……起见 e.g. I) He moved to the seaside for the sake of his health.为了健康，他移居到海边。 II) John and Mary stayed together only for the sake of the children. John 和 Mary 只是为 了孩子们在住在一起。 not in the least not in any way; absolutely not 一点也不，绝对不 e.g. I) It doesn’t matter in the least if you’re a bit late.稍微迟到一点绝对没问题。 II) “Are you dissatisfied with the results?” “Not in the least.” 你对结果不满意吗？” 一 “ “ 点也不。 ” on occasion sometimes but not often 有时，间或 e.g. I) He has, on occasion, made small mistakes.他偶尔犯些小错误。 II) On occasion prisoners were allowed visits from their families.偶尔囚犯们被允许接 受家属的探望。 time and again very often; repeatedly 屡次，一再 e.g. I) I’ve told her time and again not to bring that dog in here.我一再告诉她别把狗带进 来。 II) He would go over his work time and again until he felt he had it right.他屡次检查他 的工作，直到他觉得没问题为止。
After passage two date back to have existed since a particular time in the past 可追溯到 e.g. I) This church dates back to the 13th century.这座教堂（的历史）可追溯到 13 世纪。 II) This tradition dates back to medieval times (中世纪). 这个传统可追溯到中世纪。 feed back provide information to a person or agency that has requested it 反馈，反应 e.g. I) The information is fed back to the government department.这个信息被反应到政府部 门。 II) We will feed back answers to the members who raised specific questions at the meeting.我们将把回复反馈给在会上提出具体问题的成员。 in the hope that because one hopes that something will happen 因为希望…… e.g. I) I didn’t phone till four o’clock in the hope that you’d be finished.我直到 4 点钟才打电 话，希望那时候你完成了。 II) We will be analyzing all the evidence in the hope that we can find the person responsible.我们将分析所有的证据，希望找到责任人。 proceed to go to a further or the next stage 往下进行(另一件事) e.g. I) Let’s proceed to the next item on the agenda.我们进入议程中下一个问题吧。 II) We can now proceed to the main business of the meeting.我们可以转入会议的主题
to the point concerning, or with importance to a specific matter or case 切题 e.g. I) His argument was short and to the point. 他的论据简短切题。 II) And more to the point, students must learn from the experience, not just have the experience.更为准确地说， 学生们必须从经验中学到什么， 而不是仅仅取得经验。 翻译 1．调查似乎暗示恶劣的居住条件和糟糕的健康状况之间存在着联系。 The survey results seem to indicate a connection between poor housing conditions and bad health. 2．按照他的遗嘱，他被安葬在了他的家乡。 He was buried in his hometown, in accordance with his wishes. 3．母亲不应该偏爱她的任何子女。 A mother should not favor any of her children. 4．他对他们也许稍有误导，但是无心的。 Perhaps he had slightly misled them, but it was quite unintentional. 5．这样，社会加强了它固有的价值观，并按其传统的、期望的模式造就了不同性别的人。 Thus, society reinforces its established values and turns out each sex in its traditional and expected mold. 6．这是一种专家认为我们应该在学校和家里和孩子一起遵循的策略。 It is a strategy that experts say we ought to be following with our children both at home and school. 7．她通过儿子间接地掌管着公司。 She still controls the company indirectly through his son. 8．受益于创造性的不只限于音乐和艺术领域。 Creativity’s benefits reach beyond music and art. 9. 这些孩子中的许多都已经被剥夺了正常的家庭生活 A lot of these children have been deprived of a normal home life. 10．能取得成功的学生和成人都是那些会寻求种办法解决问题的人。 Successful students and adults are the ones who discover a number of ways to approach problems. 11. 许多教育者十分看重考试分数，强调阅读、写作和数学能力. Many educators place strong emphasis on test scores and the development of reading, writing and mathematical skills. 12. 我们不应该因追求正确的答案而牺牲了对创造性的培养。 We should not sacrifice creativity for correct answers. 13．专家认为必须创造一个可以自由发挥创造力的氛围. Experts say that it is important to create an atmosphere in which there is no risk in being creative. 14．我们确信找到了解决这个问题的可行的方法。 We believe we have found a workable solution to this problem. 15．交通拥挤的时候要一小时内到家几乎是不可能的。 It’s practically impossible to get home in less than an hour when the traffic is heavy. 16．年轻人的教育对于我国的前途是极其重要的。
The education of young people is vital to the future of our country. 17. 时间就是金钱，应该动脑筋积攒起来或理智地花。 Time is money, to be saved and spent wisely. 18．这些素质可以培养出一个伟大的运动员，但是不一定能造就出一位伟人。 These qualities may well make a great athlete, but they don’t necessarily make a great person.